Reported speech o también conocido como Reporte indirecto, es la forma que se utiliza para referirnos a algo que fue dicho por nosotros mismo o por alguien más en el pasado.
Éste tipo de reporte se usa tanto de manera oral como de manera escrita y es una parte importante del idioma y que todo estudiante del idioma inglés debe conocer.
QUE DEBO SABER?
Lo primero que debes saber y considerar es que en el reporte indirecto se deberá hacer un cambio de tiempo. Observa a que tiempo cambiará el reporte.
- Present Simple Tense into Past Simple Tense
- Present Continuous Tense into Past Continuous Tense
- Present Perfect Tense into Past Perfect Tense
- Past Simple Tense into Past Perfect Tense
- Past Continuous Tense into Past Perfect Continuous Tense
- Past Perfect Tense (The tense remains unchanged)
- Will into Would
- Will be into Would be
- Will have into Would have
- Will have been into Would have been
Other Verb Form Changes in Indirect Speech
- Can into Could
- Could (The verb remains unchanged)
- Have to into Had to
- Must into Must/Had to
- May into Might
- Might (The verb remains unchanged)
- Should (The verb remains unchanged)
Present simple ⇨ Past Simple
I’m from Spain. ⇨ He said he was from Spain.
I love speaking in English ⇨ She said she loved speaking in English.
I live in London. ⇨ He said he lived in London.
Present Continuous ⇨ Past Continuous
I’m resting on the sofa. ⇨ He said he was resting on the sofa.
You’re driving on the wrong side. ⇨ She said I was driving on the wrong side.
You’re working too hard. ⇨ She told me I was working too hard.
Past Simple ⇨ Past Perfect
I drove to Paris yesterday. ⇨ He said he had driven to Paris the previous day.
I woke up in hospital. ⇨ He said he had woken up in hospital.
I worked last Sunday. ⇨ He said he had worksed last Sunday
Present Perfect ⇨ Past Perfect
I’ve bought a new cushion. ⇨ She said she had bought a new cushion.
I’ve swum with sharks. ⇨ She said she had swum with sharks.
I’ve swallowed my chewing gum. ⇨ He said he had swalloed his chewing gum.
Past Perfect ⇨ Past Perfect
¡Buenas noticias! No hay que cambiar el tiempo verbal para pasarlo a ‘reported speech’.
The jury had had many doubts about the case. ⇨ She said the jury had had many doubts about the case.
Can ⇨ Could
I can’t understand Scottish people. ⇨ She said she couldn’t understand Scottish people.
I can play the piano. ⇨ He said he could play the piano.
I can cook for you. ⇨ He said he could cook for me.
Will ⇨ Would
I’ll take the rubbish out this evening. ⇨ He said he would take the rubbish out that evening.
I’ll love you forever. ⇨ She said she’d love me forever.
I’ll speak to the manager. ⇨ He said he would speak to the manager.
EL CAMBIO DE LOS ADVERBIOS DE TIEMPO Y LUGAR
Al cambiar a estilo indirecto, damos un paso atrás en el tiempo, por tanto ‘hoy’ será ‘ese día’, ‘esta noche’ será ‘esa noche’, mañana será ‘el día siguiente’, etc.
‘el día siguiente’, etc.
I will speak to you tomorrow.
She said she would speak to me the next/ following day.
- Now –> Then
- Today –> That day
- Here –> There
- This –> That
- Tomorrow –> The following day/ The next day/ The day after
- Next week –> The following week/ The next week/ The week after
- Yesterday –> The previous day/ The day before
- Last week –> The previous week/ The week before
- Ago –> Previously/ Before
- Tonight –> That night
EL CAMBIO DE LOS PRONOMBRES
Al igual que ocurre con los verbos, también debemos tener en cuenta que al pasar la oración a estilo indirecto, el pronombre personal o posesivo concuerde.
Ryan told me: “I‘m in a bit of a rush.”
Ryan told me he was in a bit of a rush
My mum said: “I’m coming to your place for lunch”.
My mum said she was coming to my place for lunch.
CUANDO NO SE HACEN CAMBIOS EN LOS TIEMPOS VERBALES EN EL REPORTED SPEECH.
1.- Cuando el verbo introductor este en Presente
2.- Si el verbo de la oración es un pasado irreal como los que aparecen en el condicional 2 y 3
3.- Con estructuras con verbos Had better, could, would, used to, should, might, ought to y mustn’t.
4.- Si el reporte se realiza inmediatamente después o tan pronto como fue dicho.
VERBOS INTRODUCTORIOS PARA EL REPORTED SPEECH.
- Tell, say, ask
- Verb + that + clause: complain, deny, explain, exclaim, remark, promise, boast, inform somebody, claim, agree, suggest
- Verb + to + infinitive: agree, offer, refuse, demand, threaten, promise, claim
- Verb + indirect object + to + infinitive: advise, allow, beg, command, encourage, forbid, invite, want, instruct, permit, urge, order, remind, warn
- Verb + “ing” form: admit (to), accuse somebody of, apologize for, boast about/ of, complain to somebody of, deny, insist on, suggest
- Verb + how: explain to somebody
Para realizar las preguntas seguirás las mismas reglas que ya hemos visto y trabajado con anterioridad.
Deberás utilizar verbos introductorios diferentes como ask, inquire, want to know….
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